However, there is a need to building a few other parallel FMIs akin to NPCIs for clearing and settlement to reduce payment concentration risk in large-value payment systems. A Financial Market Infrastructure (FMI) is a multilateral system among participating institutions, including operators of the system. The term FMI is used for the entities that are involved in clearing, settling, or recording financial transactions such as payments, securities, and derivatives. Below is the table accommodating CPSS-IOSCO principles applicable to PMIs participating in payment systems.

Basically, we’re talking about integrations with foreign currency payment systems that handle customers’ deposits and withdrawals. For traders’ ease and to guarantee a sufficient trading turnover on a platform, as well as for the sake of keeping a worldwide corporate presence, robust FX payment solutions are required. There are over five lakh POS terminals in the country, which enable customers to make payments for purchases of goods and services by means of credit/debit cards.

This is another reason why you need an established, expert PSP provider, who can ensure the smooth processing of payments. This need is further exacerbated by the fact that forex trading transactions are classified as higher risk and thus fall under tighter scrutiny and controls, that only a true professional and reliable PSP could help you navigate effectively. Card payment systems have been one of the most sought-after payment systems. It involves a card issuer bank, merchant, and acquirer bank a typical payment transaction.

Furthermore, a standardised template has been prescribed for displaying at all ATM locations to facilitate lodging of complaints by customers. At the end of the three banking business days, final monthly reports are produced, reflecting any firm-made adjustments. The banking reports reflect the amount of funds that the firm should make available for transfer. Additionally, the brokers’ banking statements detail the amount of money to be transferred into their accounts on a per firm basis. BPS facilitates brokerage payments to filling brokers by Member Firms via automatic debits to Member Firms’ bank accounts. The system eliminates the costly labor-intensive task of preparing and distributing monthly checks to brokers and assures timely brokerage payments.

Brokerage Payment System

A payment denotes the performance or discharge of an obligation to pay, which may or may not involve money transfer. Payment is therefore a financial obligation in whatever parties have agreed constituting a payment. A payment and settlement system could be understood as a payments market infrastructure that facilitates the flow of funds in satisfaction of a financial obligation. From the use of a payment system in an e-commerce purchase, a debit or credit card fund transfer, stock or share purchase.

A triparty agent could also function as a clearing bank subject to prior approval of RBI like CCIL. In retail payment systems, are the small value payment systems (SMPS), the frequency of payment transaction is large but the system handles a large volume of low-value payments. While NEFT and RTGS traditionally being supported by banks are also used for retail payments, other modes for retail payment being funds transfer through cheques, credit cards, and direct debit and credit card transactions. The state of the art payment products developed by NPCI, as shown in Fig 4 below, supports new and innovative payment options. The bilateral settlement could be on a gross basis or there could be a net settlement of obligations. In a gross settlement system each payment instruction is settled or transfer of funds occurs individually on a transaction-by-transaction basis for complete value.

This is another reason why you need a reliable PSP by your side, who will get you access to big banks and merchant accounts, and help your brokerage develop into a solid business. The Clearing Corporation plays the crucial role of a Central Counter Party (CCP) in the government securities, USD –INR forex exchange (both spot and forward segments) and Collaterised Borrowing and Lending Obligation (CBLO) markets. CCIL plays the role of a central counterparty whereby, the contract between buyer and seller gets replaced by two new contracts – between CCIL and each of the two parties. Through novation, the counterparty credit risk between the buyer and seller is eliminated with CCIL subsuming all counterparty and credit risks. Indian Financial Technology and Allied Services (IFTAS) a wholly owned subsidiary of RBI has recently implemented a Global Interchange for Financial Transactions (GIFT) platform is integrated payment and settlement system. The GIFT supports (inter-bank) payments and messaging between a source bank and a destination bank.

The second leg of the payment transaction to receive an outward debit message, settlement of transactions by way of passing real-time inward credit message to beneficiary banks. The entire payment process is nothing but simply an accounting operation in which debt is transferred from one person to another in the payment chain. The payment system is an enabler that affects payment between the payer and the ultimate beneficiary. The participant in the payment system could be a provider of the process which may involve each component or any of the processes in the payment system i.e., clearing, payment, or settlement. It is essential to understand clearing prior to understanding the settlement of transactions.

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Brokerage Payment System

The RTGS is continuous and there is no settlement lag, as settlement is in real time. The liquidity risk is managed by member banks through intra-day liquidity (IDL) available to member banks. IDL is an interest-free liquidity facility against fully collateralised government securities held by the member in their IDL-SGL account with RBI. The quantum of IDL, margin requirement and nature of the collateral is communicated by RBI to members. The members can process inter-bank transactions-funds transfer between two RTGS members and can also undertake customer transaction, i.e. funds transfer on behalf of a customer of RTGS member (gross bilateral offsetting). The members can also perform Multilateral Net Settlement Batch (MNSB) from ancillary payment system managed by a clearing house (multilateral offsetting).

Cryptocurrency payments are enabled through a cryptocurrency payment gateway, which in simple words is the technology that enables businesses to accept transactions in cryptos such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple, and others. The use of pre-paid payment instruments for cross border transactions has not been permitted, except for the payment instruments approved under Foreign Exchange Management brokers payment system Act,1999 (FEMA). This retail funds transfer system introduced in the late 1990s enabled an account holder of a bank to electronically transfer funds to another account holder with any other participating bank. The Bank introduced the ECS (Credit) scheme during the 1990s to handle bulk and repetitive payment requirements (like salary, interest, dividend payments) of corporates and other institutions.

In the deferred settlement process be it gross settlement or net settlement there exists a settlement finality risk, since settlement involves a time lag. In net settlement the banks have to hold less liquidity and the transaction cost is low. However, there is implicit credit risk in net settlement, from fig.1 above in net settlement transaction, banks are giving each other unsecured credit on basis of payments that are not immediately settled in final terms. Thus participants in payment systems are exposed to credit and liquidity risk that constitute settlement risk.

You can let it ride and collect a bit of interest, take it out and spend it, or invest it. Before making plans for that little sum of green—which may be titled brokerage cash in your statements— you have to figure out what is yours to use immediately. Yarilet Perez is an experienced multimedia journalist and fact-checker with a Master of Science in Journalism.

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